No More Surprise Medical Bills: Providers Score More Victories in First Year of No Surprises Act Arbitrations, But Claims Backlog Otherwise Complicates Implementation

In the year following the implementation of the arbitration process established under the federal No Surprises Act (NSA), more than 330,000 disputes have been submitted for resolution. This figure far outpaces the predictions of the US Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Labor, and the Treasury (the Departments), and complicates the implementation of the NSA.

*This is the eighth article in a series analyzing the No Surprises Act and its implementation. To view the entire series, click here.

As background, Congress passed the NSA in 2020, effective in 2022, to curb so-called “surprise” medical bills — balance bills received by patients in situations where they have no control over who is involved in their care. Frequently, patients incur these bills when they obtain emergency care from out-of-network facilities or non-emergency services at in-network facilities where at least one member of the care team is out-of-network. In these situations, the NSA forbids out-of-network providers from balance billing the patients to collect the difference between billed charges and what the patient’s health insurance actually paid. Instead, to protect patients and ensure that reasonable payments are made to providers, the NSA establishes an alternative dispute resolution process, allowing eligible parties to submit disputed claims to independent dispute resolution entities (IDREs) to determine appropriate out-of-network payment rates.

Dispute resolution was intended to be streamlined and efficient, but IDREs have been inundated with submissions in the year since the NSA became effective. The volume of claims has created a significant backlog, hindering providers’ ability to obtain timely and appropriate reimbursement for the services they rendered. In an effort to promote transparency, the Departments recently issued a “status update” on the arbitration process. The report revealed several key findings regarding the volume, eligibility, and outcomes of claims submitted under the NSA to date.

Key Findings of the Status Update Report

First, the report provided insight into the overall numbers of claims that have been filed since the NSA became effective. Since the federal claims submission portal first went live in April 2022, disputing parties have initiated more than 330,000 arbitration submissions. This figure is nearly 14 times greater than the Departments’ initial estimates. The sheer volume of claims has drastically slowed the adjudication of claims submitted under the NSA.

Second, the report states that IDREs have rendered determinations in favor of one party or the other in only a small fraction of cases, with approximately 42,000 disputes decided as of March 31, 2023. Of these, initiating parties (typically health care providers) have prevailed approximately 71% of the time.

Third, to date, IDREs have closed more cases than they have decided. Overall, more than 100,000 claims,  – more than four times the amount anticipated by the Departments, have been closed. There are various reasons for this. Some claims were closed following successful negotiations between the parties. Others were closed due to one or both parties failing to submit the required fees mandated under the NSA. A large number — nearly 40,000 — were closed for eligibility reasons. Non-initiating parties have challenged the eligibility of more than a third of claims submitted for arbitration, balking at approximately 120,000 disputes. Non-initiating parties frequently object that claims are not eligible for arbitration under the NSA for multiple reasons, including lack of timely negotiation or arbitration submission, or because the disputed claims involve insurance programs outside the scope of the NSA.

In addition to the objections lodged by non-initiating parties, the IDREs have an independent duty to confirm that all claims submitted for arbitration are eligible under the NSA. These determinations require IDREs to engage in what can be a complex and time-consuming analysis of each claim, frequently requiring the submission of additional information from the parties. The report finds that these eligibility determinations represent the primary cause for the delays in processing arbitration submissions.

Finally, in an effort to help resolve delays, the status update includes that the Departments have begun to require initiating parties to submit additional information to assist IDREs in evaluating the eligibility of claims. The Departments have also modified the arbitration portal to require the input of additional information to enable non-initiating parties to identify disputed claims. These are among the “ongoing technical and operational improvements” the report states the Departments have been making over the last year.

Looking Ahead: Additional Legislation and Ongoing Court Challenges

The report highlights a series of problems that have hampered the implementation of the NSA, including larger-than-expected dispute volume, complex eligibility determinations, and technical issues. Collectively, these problems have left many parties awaiting arbitration awards and payment.

Meanwhile, the legal challenges to the Departments’ implementing regulations under the NSA continue, and HHS Secretary Xavier Bacerra recently testified before Congress regarding the implementation of the NSA. These developments have fueled speculation that Congress may step in and pass additional legislation to streamline the arbitration process. While these events play out, providers should continue to submit timely open negotiation notices and IDR initiation forms to preserve their rights under the NSA.

A copy of CMS’s report can be found here.


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